Friday's rally came a day after a similar one was staged in Herat amid the Taliban trying to form a new government following their complete takeover of the country last month, said the TOLO News report.
The Taliban, who are yet to decide on female leadership roles, have already said that women can work in government institutions but not in higher-ranking positions.
During the rally in Kabul, the participants demanded the Taliban and the international community to preserve women's achievements in Afghanistan in the last two decades and respect their political, social, and economic rights.
"No society will make progress without women's active role. Therefore, women's political participation in the future government and its cabinet should be considered," TOLO News quoted civil society activist Tarannom Saeedi as saying.
Another activist, Razia said that "we want to work like men under the Islamic law".
The participants urged women across the country to go back to work despite the Taliban coming back to power.
After the fall of Kabul on August 15, the Taliban turned away several female presenters working at RTA (the national radio and television facilitate in Afghanistan) and did not let them continue working at the station.
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid has also said that women can work under Islamic principles, without providing further details.